Title:

Directed graph iterated function systems

This thesis concerns an active research area within fractal geometry. In the first part, in Chapters 2 and 3, for directed graph iterated function systems (IFSs) defined on ℝ, we prove that a class of 2vertex directed graph IFSs have attractors that cannot be the attractors of standard (1vertex directed graph) IFSs, with or without separation conditions. We also calculate their exact Hausdorff measure. Thus we are able to identify a new class of attractors for which the exact Hausdorff measure is known. We give a constructive algorithm for calculating the set of gap lengths of any attractor as a finite union of cosets of finitely generated semigroups of positive real numbers. The generators of these semigroups are contracting similarity ratios of simple cycles in the directed graph. The algorithm works for any IFS defined on ℝ with no limit on the number of vertices in the directed graph, provided a separation condition holds. The second part, in Chapter 4, applies to directed graph IFSs defined on ℝⁿ . We obtain an explicit calculable value for the power law behaviour as r → 0⁺ , of the qth packing moment of μ[subscript(u)], the selfsimilar measure at a vertex u, for the nonlattice case, with a corresponding limit for the lattice case. We do this (i) for any q ∈ ℝ if the strong separation condition holds, (ii) for q ≥ 0 if the weaker open set condition holds and a specified nonnegative matrix associated with the system is irreducible. In the nonlattice case this enables the rate of convergence of the packing L[superscript(q)]spectrum of μ[subscript(u)] to be determined. We also show, for (ii) but allowing q ∈ ℝ, that the upper multifractal q boxdimension with respect to μ[subscript(u)], of the set consisting of all the intersections of the components of F[subscript(u)], is strictly less than the multifractal q Hausdorff dimension with respect to μ[subscript(u)] of F[subscript(u)].
